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INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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COV3ER: Composés organiques volatiles biogéniques (COVB)

Le projet COV3ER

Nouvelles références sur grandes cultures et forêts Françaises et effet des pratiques agricoles

Le projet COV3ER s’inscrit dans l’appel à projets R&D (CORTEA édition 2015). L’appel à projets « COnnaissances, Réduction à la source et Traitement des Emissions dans l’Air » (CORTEA) a pour objectif de faire émerger des projets de Recherche & Développement orientés vers l'amélioration de la qualité de l'air intérieur et extérieur, en cohérence avec les actions de l’ADEME dans les secteurs de l'agriculture, du bâtiment, de l'industrie, et des transports..

Dans ce projet nous proposons de fournir de nouvelles références de flux de la vaste majorité des COVB par une méthode directe sur un panel représentatif des agro-écosystèmes en France : grandes cultures et forêts gérées. Nous proposons également d’acquérir des références sur les émissions liées aux pratiques agricoles identifiées comme sources principales de COVB et COSV (semi-volatils) et en particulier les apports de produits résiduaires organiques et décomposition des litières. Des mesures annexes seront réalisées afin d’établir les relations entre les flux de COVB et le fonctionnement de ces écosystèmes, dans le but d’extrapoler nos résultats dans le temps et l’espace, et de donner les éléments pour réévaluer les potentiels d’émissions de COVB par ces écosystèmes en France.

Pour aboutir à ces objectifs, le projet propose de mettre au point une méthode directe de mesure des flux de COVB par « Eddy Covariance (EC)[1] » réalisable grâce à un instrument de pointe, dernier né de la série des PTR-TOF- MS (Time of flight Proton Transfer Mass Spectrometer). La sensibilité et la fréquence d’acquisition de cet instrument permet d’envisager cette mesure par EC pour un large spectre de COVB. Cet instrument et des mesures par GC-MS (chromatographie en phase gazeuse) seront réalisées dans les différents compartiments de l’écosystème(chambres et profils) afin identifier lessources et puits ainsi que sur des échantillons de lisiers et de litières au laboratoire. Bien que donnant un accès à un très grand nombre de composés, cette méthode ne permet pas de mesurer les COV de manière exhaustive. C’est pourquoi nous proposons unevalidation indirecte par mesure de la réactivité OH.

[1] Méthode de mesure des flux basée sur la mesure des fluctuations turbulentes des composantes du vent et des rapports de mélange des composés étudiés.

Diapositive1

COV3ER - Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions by managed ecosystems

New references over French crops and forest and management effects

Volatile organic compounds are essentials drivers of atmospheric chemistry and precursors of pollutants that constitute a threat for human health and the environment: ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (Andreae and Crutzen, 1997; Chameides and Davis, 1980). Most VOC are biogenic (BVOC), and are not exhaustively quantified. In particular, managed ecosystems which represent up to 50% of land use in Europe, represent the largest potential emitter of BVOC. It is estimated that 55% of the emissions come from forest, 27% from agriculture and 18% from other land use (grasslands and wetlands) (Karl et al., 2009). Current estimates however do not account satisfactorily for emissions linked with agricultural practices due to a lack of data: slurry management, emissions from litter, pesticides.

In this project we will set up a new direct method able to measure the fluxes of the vast majority of BVOC from a panel of managed ecosystem in France: crops and managed forests. We will also measure emission from agricultural practices identified as major BVOC and SVOC (semi volatile) emitters and in particular field slurry application and litter decomposition. Additional measurements will be performed to establish the links between BVOC fluxes and ecosystem functioning. This will allow extrapolating our results and evaluate emission potential of BVOC by these ecosystems.

To reach our objectives we will set up an eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring BVOC fluxes, using a state of the art PTR-TOF-MS (Time of flight Proton Transfer Mass Spectrometer) instrument. The sensitivity and acquisition frequency of this instrument indeed allow EC flux measurement for a large spectrum of BVOC. This instrument and complementary GC-MS (gas chormatography) measurements will also be used to measure BVOC fluxes in each compartment of the ecosystem and from slurry and litter in the laboratory.

Although the PTR-TOF-MS measures a large number of compounds, it is not an exhaustive measurement.  Hence, we will set up an indirect validation method by measuring the OH reactivity of the atmosphere which by comparison with the measured BVOC determines whether there are missing compounds in the balance.

References

Andreae, M., O. and Crutzen, P., J.: Atmospheric Aerosols: Biogeochemical Sources and Role in Atmospheric Chemistry, Science, 276, 1052-1068, 1997.

Chameides, W. L. and Davis, D.: J. Geophys. Res., 85, 7383, 1980.

Project partners

INRA (UMR ECOSYS, équipe d'écophysiologie et physicochimie des interactions biosphère-atmosphère - Eco&Phy)

LSCE (équipe de chimie atmosphérique expérimentale)

CEFE (équipe d'écologie fonctionnelle)

ESE (équipe d'écophysiologie végétale)

Related projects

ICOS: Three ICOS sites are hosting field experiments during the project lifetime

ANAEE-S: The PTR-TOF-MS used by INRA is financed by ANAEE-S.

AgriMulTiPol: an ADEME project led by LSCE on multipollutants measurements in a farm

DICOV: an ADEME project on the link between the biological diversity of soils and VOC profiles emissions.

Financement du projet

Le projet COV3ER est financé par le programme CORTEA de l'ADEME