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Encyclop'APHID

Hyperparasitoids of aphids

Parasites of parasites, insects of the order Hymenoptera

Hyperparasitoids can be divided into secondary parasitoids when they develop at the expense of a primary parasitoid, or tertiary ones when the host is itself a hyperparasitoid. In this strategy, two options are possible. Either the tertiary hyperparasitoid parasitizes an individual of its own species (auto-hyperparasitism) or it develops by taking advantage of different species other than its own (allo-hyperparasitism). Instances of even a fourth level can occur but these are very difficult to observe.

Classification of principal hyperparasitoids

Sub-order

Superfamily

Family

Subfamily

Genus

Parasitica
  
  
  
  
  

Chalcidoidea
  
  
  

Pteromalidae
  

Asaphinae

Asaphes sp.

Pteromalinae

Pachyneuron sp.
Coruna sp.
Euneura sp.

Encyrtidae

Encyrtinae

Syrphophagus sp.

Eulophidae

Tetrastichinae

Tetrastichus sp.

Ceraphronoidea

Megaspilidae

 

Dendrocerus sp.

Cynipoidea

Charipidae

Alloxystinae

Alloxysta sp.
Phaenoglyphis sp.
 

 

The Alloxysta are koinobiont endoparasitoids: they lay their egg on aphids parasitized but still alive. The Asaphes and Dendrocerus are idiobiont ectoparasitoids: they lay the egg on aphid mummies. As for Syrphophagus, they are koinobiont endoparasitoids on parasitized yet living aphids and on their mummified forms.

Asaphes pondant dans une momie de Microlophium carnosum
jeune larve d'hyperparasitoïde
larve d'hyperparasitoïde