Management can drive ecosystem functions through its direct impact on biodiversity. Translating ecosystem functions in terms of ecosystem services requires economic evaluation that guides policy decisions and governance. Although being challenging, the economic evaluation of multiple ecosystem services simultaneously provided by the Mediterranean forests has received substantial research effort (Merlo & Croitoru, 2005). This evaluation can then be integrated into decision through the cost of policy inaction approach (Braat et al., 2008). Using spatially explicit models in conjunction with valuation methods, taking account of climate change impacts, Bateman et al. (2013) showed that highly significant value increases can be obtained from targeted planning by incorporating all potential services and their values.
 Merlo & Croitoru, eds, 2005, Valuing Mediterranean forests: towards Total Economic Value. CABI International, Wallingford/Cambridge
 Braat et al., 2008, The Cost of Policy Inaction. The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target. Report of the COPI project, Wageningen and Brussels
 Bateman et al., 2013, Science 341:45-50