Resilience is the capacity of a system to tolerate disturbance without collapsing into a qualitatively different state that is controlled by a different set of processes. We focus here on the capacity to continue providing desired ecosystem services. At global scale, taking into account future socio-economic development and climate change, quantitative scenarios on biodiversity and ecosystem services indicate a tendency to decline. In addition, climate-induced physiological stress (mainly drought and heat stress) and interactions with other climate-mediated factors such as fire and biotic attacks are expected to increase tree mortality and affect ecosystem services in the Mediterranean forests (Allen et al., 2010, Oliva et al., 2014). However, the wide range of projected changes reveals significant opportunities to intervene through better management and policies (Pereira et al., 2010). More precise global change scenarios still need to be developed at regional scale, in particular for the Mediterranean. Mediterranean forests are typical social-ecological systems. Their adaptive capacity is driven by ecological dynamics and functions, management, policy and governance. Considering all these dimensions together in an integrative framework that bridges disciplines and scales is a condition of success towards resilience, as shown by Holling et al. (2002).
 Allen et al., 2010, Forest Ecology and Management 259:660-684
 Oliva et al., 2014, New Phytologist DOI: 10.1111/nph.12857
 Pereira et al., 2010, Science 330:1496-1501
 Holling et al., 2002, In quest of a theory of adaptive change. p3-22 in: Gunderson and Holling (eds). Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA