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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Consequences of the replacement of meat and bone meals and fats of animal origin on farm animals and for human consumers

INRA Prod. Anim., 15(2), 87-96.

J.-M. PEREZ ¹, G. BORIES ², A. AUMAITRE ³, B. BARRIER-GUILLOT ⁴, A. DELAVEAU ⁵, L. GUEGUEN ⁶, M. LARBIER ⁷, D. SAUVANT ⁸

1 INRA Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, BP 27, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex

2 INRA Laboratoire de Recherches sur les Xénobiotiques,180 chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 3, 31931 Toulouse cedex 9
3 INRA Unité Mixte de Recherches sur le Veau et le Porc, 35590 Saint-Gilles
4 ITCF, Station expérimentale, 91720 Boigneville
5 Institut de l’Elevage, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris cedex 12
6 INRA Laboratoire de Nutrition et Sécurité Alimentaire, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex
7 INRA Station de Recherches Avicoles, BP 1, 37380 Nouzilly
8 INA PG Département des Sciences Animales, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris cedex 05

Abstract 
Different consequences of the suspension of the use of meat and bone meals and fats of animal origin have been identified. In terms of food technology, the predictable implications are related to the withdrawal of animal fats with a risk of greater brittleness of the pellet and difficulty of incorporating large amounts of fats. From the nutritional point of view, even though technical solutions exist for the substitution of meat and bone meals and fats of animal origin, one must expect difficulties in the use of some raw materials (soybean meal at high level, palm oil, recycled oils ...), altered consumption of the feeds, a possible decrease in performance (in particular with poultry) and an over-excretion of water (turkeys, laying hens) with sanitary consequences. The impact on the quality of the animal products comes essentially from the replacement of animal fats by vegetable oils which are the most often unsaturated and may cause faulty presentation of the carcasses and a poorer conservation, since the products are more sensitive to oxidation. For the consumer and in terms of food safety point, there may be higher potential chemical (contaminants, mycotoxins and other toxic substances produced by plants) and biological (pathogenic bacteria) risks associated with importing raw materials from different origins which are often poorly inspected and are not traceable. Some of these risks are covered by specific regulations of the European Union. There may also be traceability difficulties for those sectors which use official signs of quality or certifications, concerning the importing of non-differentiated raw materials (standard or GMO). There are not, however, identified risks associated with the GMO that have currently been authorised for commercialisation. Finally, concerning the environment, recycling must be stopped (’hidden phosphates’ in meat and bone meal) and there must be an increased sampling of the non-renewable resources (mineral phosphates). In addition, there may be an increased rejection of phosphorus (lower bioavailability of plant phosphorus) and traces of metals (not present in meat meals) which come from mineral phosphates.

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