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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Reproduction biotechnology : cloning of livestock

INRA Prod. Anim., 21(1), 33-44.

X.VIGNON, Y. HEYMAN, P. CHAVATTE-PALMER, J.-P. RENARD

INRA, UMR1198 Biologie du développement et Reproduction, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France

Abstract 

 
Reproduction of domestic species by cloning has been conducted for more than 20 years. Early techniques relied first on embryo splitting, then on using embryo cells for nuclear transfer to generate cloned animals. The advent of nuclear transfer now enables the use of somatic adult cells for the direct transfer and preservation of high-value genotypes to offspring. In this article, a summary is presented of how INRA, during the last 20 years, has brought technical improvement and scientific expertise in cloning technology, not only for the production of cloned laboratory and domestic species, but also for the study of how nuclear transfer has an influence on genetic and epigenetic regulation of embryonic, fetal and postnatal development in these animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is still a poorly efficient technique to generate live offspring. The acceptance of clones and products of clones in the food chain depends on societal discussions and evaluations from food agencies, which are based on scientific data on safety and equivalence of these products with those issued from fertilised animals. This synthesis shows how important it is to investigate every step of somatic cell nuclear transfer more intensively, starting from the donor cell and continuing until the cloned offspring are born and further.

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